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Word family
Related topics: Tastes, Nature
bit·ter1 /ˈbɪtə $ -ər/ ●●○ S3 W3 adjectiveadj  
1 ANGRY/UPSETANGRYfeeling angry, jealous, and upset because you think you have been treated unfairly 愤愤不平的,充满怨恨的 bitterly
bitter about
 I feel very bitter about it.
 a bitter old man
2 CAUSING UNHAPPINESS[only before noun]UNPLEASANT making you feel very unhappy and upset 带来痛苦的,令人难过的 bitterly
a bitter disappointment/blow
 If he failed, it would be a bitter disappointment to his parents.
 His photo stirred up bitter memories.
from bitter experience (=because of your own very unpleasant experiences) 因为痛苦的经历
 She knew from bitter experience that it would be impossible to talk it over with Julian.
3 FULL OF HATREDHATEa bitter argument, battle etc is one in which people oppose or criticize each other with strong feelings of hate and anger 〔争论、战斗等〕激烈的,充满敌意的,怨愤的
bitter dispute/battle/struggle etc
 The couple are locked in a bitter battle for custody of the children.
 The government faces bitter opposition to these policies.
 The countries are still bitter enemies.
4 TASTECThaving a strong sharp taste, like black coffee without sugar 苦的,有苦味的 sour, sweet
 Enjoy the beer’s bitter taste as you slowly drink it.
 bitter chocolate
see thesaurus at taste
5 COLDDNCOLDunpleasantly cold 刺骨的,寒冷的 bitterly
 a bitter wind
 the bitter cold of the Midwestern winters
6 to the bitter end FINISH/COME TO AN ENDcontinuing until the end, even though this is difficult 坚持到底;拼到底
 Employees have vowed to fight the closure to the bitter end.
Examples from the Corpus
7 a bitter pill (to swallow) UNPLEASANTsomething very unpleasant that you must accept 必须吞下去的苦药丸,不得不接受的现实
 The knowledge that his friends no longer trusted him was a bitter pill to swallow.
Examples from the Corpus
bitterness noun [uncountableU]
nCOLLOCATIONSMeaning 3: a bitter argument, battle etc is one in which people oppose or criticize each other with strong feelings of hate and anger
a bitter battle/dispute
There was a bitter battle over the building of the new airport.
a bitter fight/struggle
The law was passed after a bitter fight that lasted nearly a decade.
a bitter conflict
The stage is set for a bitter conflict with trade unions.
a bitter debate/argument
The country now faces a bitter debate over the issue.
bitter disagreement
There were reports of bitter disagreement between the European Communities.
bitter opposition
The new tax aroused bitter opposition.
a bitter rival/enemy (=a rival/enemy who you have strong feelings of dislike or anger about)
The two men are bitter rivals for the party leadership.
bitter having a strong sharp taste that is not sweet, like black coffee without sugar – used especially about chocolate, medicine etc
The dessert is made with a slightly bitter chocolate.
Hops give beer its distinctive bitter taste.
The medicine tasted bitter.
As the lettuce gets older, the leaves become more bitter.
sharp having a taste that makes your tongue sting slightly
Rhubarb has quite a sharp taste.
The cheese has a pleasing colour and a pleasantly sharp flavour.
sour having a usually unpleasant sharp acid taste, like the taste of a lemon, or a fruit that is not ready to be eaten – used especially about fruit, or about liquids that have gone bad
Some people say that the purpose of the lemon’s sour taste is to stop the fruit being eaten by animals.
Rachel sampled the wine. It was sour.
acidic very sour – used especially about liquids or things made with fruits such as oranges, lemons, or grapes
Some fruit juices taste a bit acidic.
tangy having a taste that is pleasantly strong or sharp, and that often tastes a little sweet as well
The ribs are cooked in a tangy barbecue sauce.
tart having a taste that lacks sweetness – used especially about fruit such as apples, which you need to add sugar to
The pudding had rather a tart flavour.
The trees were covered with tart wild plums.
Examples from the Corpus
Related topics: Drink
bitter2 noun  
1 [countableC, uncountableU] British EnglishBrEDFD a type of dark beer that is popular in Britain, or a glass of this (一杯)苦啤酒
 A pint of bitter, please.
see thesaurus at taste
2. bitters [uncountableU]DFD a strong bitter liquid made from plants that is added to alcoholic drinks 〔掺入酒精饮料的〕苦味汁
Origin bitter
Old English biter


1angry/unhappy生氣;不高興VERBS | ADVERB | PREPOSITION VERBSbe, feel, seem, sound憤憤不平;感到憤憤不平;好像憤憤不平;聽起來憤憤不平become, grow, turn變得有怨意;轉變成恨He had grown bitter as the years passed.隨着歲月的流逝他變得怨氣重重。Loving relationships can turn bitter.愛能轉化為恨。remain仍然有怨意leave sb, make sb使某人怨氣沖天The divorce had left her bitter.離婚讓她心懷怨恨。ADVERBextremely, fairly, very, etc.極度/相當/非常痛苦slightly有點兒痛苦increasingly越來越鬱悶PREPOSITIONabout對⋯感到不滿She still seems bitter about it.她對那件事好像仍然有些不滿。towards/toward對⋯不滿I felt very bitter towards / toward them.我對他們極為不滿。


2very cold寒冷VERBS | ADVERB VERBSbe冷得刺骨become, turn變寒冷The weather turned bitter.天氣轉冷。remain仍然很冷ADVERBextremely, fairly, very, etc.極其/相當/非常寒冷


3having a sharp taste味苦VERBS | ADVERB VERBSbe, taste苦;嚐起來苦The drink tasted bitter.這飲料喝起來有苦味。ADVERBextremely, fairly, very, etc.極其苦;相當苦;非常苦a little, slightly, etc.有點兒/稍有些苦
bitter adj.
bitter1 (a bitter taste) bitter2 (bitter feelings) freezing (a bitter wind)


a bitter taste 苦味bitter feelings 痛苦的感情bitter ♦︎ pungent ♦︎ sour ♦︎ acrid ♦︎ sharp ♦︎ acidThese words all describe a strong, unpleasant taste or smell. 这些词均表示味道或气味强烈的、令人不适的。PATTERNS AND COLLOCATIONS 句型和搭配a bitter / a pungent / an acrid / a sharp / an acid taste / flavoura bitter / a pungent / a sour / an acrid / a sharp / an acid smell / odoura bitter / a pungent / an acrid / a sharp scenta bitter / a sour / a sharp / an acid fruita pungent / sharp cheesepungent / acrid smoketo taste bitter / sour / sharpto smell bitter / sharp bitter (of a taste or smell) strong and usually unpleasant; (of food or drink) having a bitter taste (味道或气味)强烈而令人不适的;(食物或饮料)味苦的bitter coffee / chocolate苦咖啡;苦巧克力The drink tasted bitter.这种饮料味苦。This plant is ignored by livestock because of the bitter taste.因为味苦,家畜不吃这种植物。 pungent ˈpʌndʒənt (of a smell or taste) strong and usually unpleasant; (of food or smoke) having a pungent smell or taste (气味或味道)强烈而令人不适的;(食物)刺激性的,辛辣的;(烟)呛人的,刺鼻的the pungent smell of burning rubber烧橡胶的刺鼻气味The air was pungent with the smell of spices.空气里充满了各种香料的刺激性气味。 sour (of a taste) bitter like the taste of a lemon or of fruit that is not ripe; (of food or drink) having a sour taste (味道)酸的;(食物或饮料)有酸味的Too much pulp produces a sour wine.过多的果肉会让酒变酸。 OPP sweet Sweet food contains sugar or tastes of sugar. * sweet指食物含糖的、甜的I need a cup of hot sweet tea.我需要一杯加糖的热茶。This wine is too sweet for me.这种葡萄酒对我来说太甜了。 see also sour rotten acrid ˈækrɪd (of a smell or taste) strong and unpleasant; (of smoke) having an acrid smell (气味或味道)刺激的,难闻的;(烟)呛人的,刺鼻的The fog was yellow and acrid and bit at the back of the throat.雾的颜色发黄,气味呛人,直刺喉根。 sharp (of a taste or smell) strong and slightly bitter; (of food or drink) having a sharp taste (味道或气味)强烈而略苦的,刺鼻的;(食物或饮料)味苦的,辛辣的The cheese has a distinctively sharp taste.这奶酪味道很冲。 acid (of a taste or smell) bitter, like the taste of a lemon or of fruit that is not ripe; (of food or drink) having an acid taste (味道)酸的;(气味)有刺激性的;(食物或饮料)有酸味的It's a very juicy fruit with a slightly acid flavour.这种水果多汁,味道略酸。NOTE 辨析 Which word? Bitter, sour, sharp and acid are all used more for tastes. Pungent and acrid are used more for smells. A bitter taste is usually unpleasant, but some people enjoy the bitter flavour of coffee or chocolate. You cannot use any other word to describe this flavour. * bitter、sour、sharp和acid多用以形容味道。pungent和acrid多用以形容气味。bitter表示味苦,通常令人不适,有些人却喜欢咖啡或巧克力的苦味,其他词都不能描述这种味道pungent/sour/acrid/sharp/acid coffee/chocolate Sour and acid both describe the taste of a lemon or fruit that is not ripe. Sour is usually a negative term; acid can be negative or simply descriptive. A sharp or pungent flavour is more strong than unpleasant, especially when describing cheese. * sour和acid均指柠檬或未成熟水果的那种酸味。sour通常作贬义;acid既可作贬义,也可作客观描述。sharp或pungent主要强调味道强烈,而非令人不适,在描述奶酪的味道时尤其如此bitter/sour/acrid/acid cheese A pungent smell is usually unpleasant, but some people enjoy the pungent smell of rich, spicy food. An acrid smell is always unpleasant; acrid is not used for the smell of food. * pungent指气味有刺激性,通常令人不适,但有些人却喜欢油腻、调料重的食物的浓烈气味。acrid指气味刺激难闻,总是令人不适;acrid不用于形容食物的气味。 bitter2


a bitter taste 苦味bitter feelings 痛苦的感情bitter ♦︎ sour ♦︎ resentful ♦︎ acrimonious ♦︎ embitteredThese words all describe people feeling angry and unhappy after a bad experience. 这些词均表示因糟糕的经历而感到愤愤不平、闷闷不乐。PATTERNS AND COLLOCATIONS 句型和搭配bitter / resentful about sthbitter / resentful towards sba bitter / a sour / an embittered mana sour / resentful expressiona bitter / an acrimonious debate / dispute / divorce bitter (of people) feeling very angry and unhappy because you feel that you have been treated unfairly; (of situations) full of angry feelings and words (人)愤愤不平的;(状况)怨声载道的He is very bitter about losing his job.他丢了工作,心里很不服气。She bit her lip hard to stop the rush of bitter words.她使劲咬着嘴唇,把到嘴边的刻薄话咽回去了。They are locked in a bitter custody battle over their three children.他们为三个孩子的监护权陷入了一场激烈的争夺之中。 see also bitterness resentment bitterly


They complained bitterly.他们气愤地抱怨。
sour feeling or expressing bitterness or disappointment 阴郁的;闷闷不乐的;沮丧的She was a sour and disillusioned old woman.她是一个心灰意冷、幻想破灭的老女人。The meeting ended on a sour note with several people walking out.数人退场,会议不欢而散。As time went by the marriage turned sour.时日推移,这桩婚姻逐渐产生问题。 Sour is not usually followed by a preposition. * sour后通常不接介词She was sour about it. see also sour influence verb sourly


'Who asked you?' he said sourly.“谁问你了?”他没好气地说。
resentful rɪˈzentfl (especially written) feeling bitter or angry about sth that you think is unfair 感到气愤的;憎恨的;愤慨的She was resentful at having been left out of the team.她对于被摈出团队感到气愤。They seemed to be resentful of our presence there.他们好像对我们出现在那里很生气。 see also resent resent , resentment resentment resentfully


He looked at me resentfully.他满怀怨恨地看着我。
NOTE 辨析 Bitter, sour or resentful? Bitter feelings are the strongest and most openly expressed. * bitter所表达的感情最强烈、最公开feeling extremely / intensely / very bitter感到极其/非常/十分痛苦a bitter laugh / smile苦笑If you feel sour or resentful it may be less obvious. * sour或resentful所表达的感情也许没那么明显vaguely / silently resentful略感气愤;生闷气resentful eyes满含怨愤的眼神a sour face阴郁的脸色 Sour especially describes relationships which may go/turn sour. * go/turn sour尤指关系变坏、恶化。
acrimonious ˌækrɪˈməʊniəs; NAmE ˌækrɪˈmoʊniəs (rather formal) (of a situation) angry and full of strong bitter feelings and words (状况)怨声载道的,恶言相向的His parents went through an acrimonious divorce.他的父母在激烈争吵中离了婚。 see also acrimony resentment acrimoniously


The relationship ended acrimoniously.这段关系在怨愤中结束了。
embittered (rather formal, especially written) feeling angry and unhappy about sth over a long period of time (长期)怨愤的,沮丧的,苦恼的He died an embittered man.他含怨而终。
Feeling angry or annoyed: angry, annoyed, upset...
Feeling disappointed: disappointed, disillusioned, dismayed...
General words used to describe emotions: acutely, affective, basic...
Enemies and describing enemies: enemy, opponent, adversary...
Making you feel sad or upset: sad, unhappy, depressing...
Cold: cold, cool, icy...
Sadness and unhappiness: sadness, depression, grief...

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