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IELTS BNC: 846 COCA: 1752


Word family
Related topics: Tax
du·ty /ˈdjuːti $ ˈduː-/ ●●● S2 W1 noun (plural duties)  
1 STH you must do 应做的事情 [countableC, uncountableU]SHOULD/OUGHT TO something that you have to do because it is morally or legally right 〔道德或法律上的〕义务,责任 SYN obligation
 I promise I will do my duty.
 We feel it is our duty to help her.
 Local authorities have a duty to keep the streets clean.
 You have a duty to your husband and to your children.
 She has a strong sense of moral duty.
 The unions have failed in their duty to female workers.
 In the traditional Hindu family, the son is duty-bound to look after his mother.
2 work 工作JOB/TASK [countableC usually plural, uncountableU] something you have to do as part of your job 〔工作〕职责,义务
 Martin’s duties included cleaning the cars.
 She works for her father doing part-time secretarial duties.
 He will soon be fit enough to carry out his duties (=do his job).
 He can only do light duties.
 When Juliet reported for duty (=arrived and said she was ready to start work) she was sent to check on a new patient.
 A teacher may be fired for neglect of duty (=failing to do their job properly).
 He did three tours of duty in Vietnam (=three periods working in a foreign country as a soldier, government officer etc).
3 be on/off duty to be working or not working at a particular time, especially when you are doing a job which people take turns to do, so that someone is always doing it 值班[值勤]/下班[不值勤]
 He’s on night duty.
 Mary goes on duty (=starts working) tonight at half past ten.
 What time do you go off duty (=finish work)?
Examples from the Corpus
4 tax [countableC, uncountableU]PET a tax you pay on something you buy 〔购物缴纳的〕税
duty on
 the duty on cigarettes
customs duty (=tax paid on goods coming into the country) 关税
death duties, stamp duty
5 do duty as something USE somethingto be used as something 用以充当[代替]某物 SYN serve as something
 The living room also does duty as a home office.
double duty, heavy-duty, → jury duty at jury service, → on active duty at active service
nCOLLOCATIONSMeaning 1: something that you have to do because it is morally or legally right
have a duty to do something
Parents have a duty to make sure that their children receive an education.
do your duty
I felt I had done my duty by voting.
fulfil your duty British EnglishBrE, fulfill your duty American EnglishAmE formal (=do what is needed)
The school has failed to fulfil its legal duty towards students.
have/owe a duty to somebody
A tenant owes a duty to the landlord to keep the house in reasonable condition.
fail in your duty (=not do something that you should do)
I would be failing in my duty if I didn't warn you of the dangers.
a moral duty
She felt it was her moral duty to treat everyone equally.
a legal duty
Employers have a legal duty to ensure the safety of their workforce.
a statutory duty (=required by law)
Local authorities have a statutory duty to ensure that parks are clean.
a public duty (=relating to the people of a country)
The media has a public duty to report the truth.
a civic duty (=done because you live in a place)
It is your civic duty to vote.
a sense of duty
He was caring for his parents out of a sense of duty rather than love.
be duty-bound to do something formal (=have a duty to do something)
Soldiers are here to do a job and are duty-bound to complete it.
nCOLLOCATIONSMeaning 2: something you have to do as part of your job
carry out your duties (also perform/discharge your duties formal) (=do your job)
She has always carried out her duties efficiently.
take up your duties (=start doing a new job)
Neale has agreed a three-year contract and takes up his duties on March 1.
resume your duties (=start doing your job again)
She hopes to be well enough to resume her duties next week.
report for duty (=arrive and be ready to start work)
You must report for duty at 8:30 tomorrow morning.
neglect/shirk your duties (=not do your job properly)
No soldier can be allowed to neglect his duties.
official duties
The new president will take up his official duties next month.
presidential/royal/ministerial etc duties (=duties that go with being a president, member of a royal family, a minister etc)
The prince is now old enough to carry out royal duties.
household/domestic duties (=jobs you have to do around the house)
My husband and I share most of the household duties.
light duties (=not involving hard physical work)
He'd been wounded, sent home and put on light duties.
guard duty (=job of guarding a place)
There were two soldiers on guard duty outside the embassy.
neglect of duty (=failing to do your job properly)
Six police officers were fired for neglect of duty.
a tour of duty (=period of working in another country as a soldier, government officer etc)
He became a General, and his tours of duty included Korea and Vietnam.
beyond the call of duty (=more than you have to do as part of your job)
She's a doctor who has gone beyond the call of duty in her care for her patients.
in the course of duty (=while doing your job, especially for your country)
Stewart received a medal for outstanding bravery in the course of duty.
Examples from the Corpus
From Longman Business Dictionary
dutydu·ty /ˈdjuːtiˈduː-/ noun (plural duties)
1[countableC usually plural] something that you have to do as part of your job
Thomas J Hutchison was named chief executive officer, adding to his duties as president and chief operating officer.
see also breach of duty
fiduciary duty
2[countableC, uncountableU]TAX a tax you pay on something you buy, import etc
Democrats want these imported vans classified as trucks and hit with a 25% duty.
Duty is levied (=charged) on every bottle of wine brought into the country.
ad valorem duty countervailing duty customs duty death duties discriminating duty estate duty excise duty export duty import duty specific duty stamp duty
Origin duty
(1200-1300) Anglo-French dueté, from Old French deu; → DUE1
LDOCE Online
IELTS BNC: 846 COCA: 1752


1sth that you have to do because it is right or expected義務ADJECTIVE | VERB + DUTY | DUTY + VERB | PREPOSITION | PHRASES ADJECTIVEcontractual, legal, statutory (especially BrE) 合同/法律/法定義務Retailers have a statutory duty to provide goods suitable for their purpose.零售商有為他們提供符合要求的貨物的法定義務。fiduciary信義義務the company's fiduciary duty to its shareholders公司對其股東所負的信義義務constitutional (especially NAmE) 憲法義務general, primary基本義務;主要責任the general duty of the police to preserve the peace警察維持治安的基本職責professional職責civic, public公民義務;公共義務I feel it is my civic duty to vote.我認為投票選舉是我作為公民的義務。patriotic愛國義務Christian, religious基督徒的責任;宗教義務family, filial, parental家庭責任;子女應盡的義務;父母的責任ethical, moral倫理責任;道德上的義務He felt it was his moral duty to help others.他覺得幫助他人是他道義上的責任。absolute, bounden (formal) , sacred, solemn, sworn絕對的/義不容辭的/神聖的/莊嚴的/誓約的義務
I feel it's my bounden duty to try and help her.我覺得盡力幫助她是我義不容辭的責任。VERB + DUTYhave, owe (law法律) 有責任;有義務You have a legal duty to take reasonable care.你有適當注意的法律義務。The company owes a duty of care to all its customers.公司有義務照顧好所有顧客。carry out, do, fulfil/fulfill, meet, perform履行義務;盡責任I suppose we'd better do our duty and report the accident.我想我們最好還是履行義務,報道此事故。She felt she had fulfilled her duty by providing him with a son.她認為給他生了個兒子就已經盡了責任。fail in未盡責任He had failed in his duty to his daughter.他對女兒未盡到責任。breach, violate失職;違反義務She had violated her legal duty of confidentiality.她違反了保密的法律義務。avoid, neglect, shirk免負責任;疏忽職守;逃避責任I'd be shirking my duty if I didn't warn him.如果我沒有對他提出警告,那就是逃避責任。abandon放棄責任I can't abandon my duty.我不能放棄我的責任。assign, charge sb with, impose分配任務;讓某人承擔責任;賦予責任It was a duty imposed by her father.那是她父親給她的責任。assume, take on承擔責任He took on the duty of maintaining the family home.他承擔了養家的責任。DUTY + VERBcall公務在身I wanted to stop and chat, but duty called and I went back to the office.我想停下來聊會兒,但由於公務在身,我又回到了辦公室。PREPOSITIONunder a/the duty有義務You are under a statutory duty to keep accurate records.你有做好準確記錄的法定義務。duty of⋯的義務;⋯的責任It's the duty of each and every one of us to do their best for the team.我們當中的每個人都有義務為團隊盡最大努力。They have a duty of confidentiality.他們有保密的責任。duty to, duty towards/toward對⋯的責任They have a duty to their parents to work hard.他們有為了父母而努力工作的責任。PHRASESa breach of duty失職It was a clear breach of professional duty.那是明顯的失職行為。do your duty by sb為某人盡職You feel that you have to do your duty by your children.你感到必須對你的孩子盡責任。be duty bound to do sth做⋯義不容辭An employer is not duty bound to provide a reference when an employee leaves.雇員離職時雇主沒有必須出具推薦信的義務。(above and) beyond the call of duty超出了職責The time he put in helping new recruits went beyond the call of duty.他在幫助新雇員方面投入的時間超出了他的職責要求。duty done盡到責任She put down the phone and went out, her duty done.她放下電話走了出去,已經盡到了責任。feel it your duty to do sth認為做⋯是自己的責任I felt it my duty to go to the police.我認為向警方報案是我的責任。in breach of a duty (formal, especially BrE) 違反義務It was ruled that the injured man was in breach of his duty by not wearing the safety equipment provided.裁決認為傷者未佩戴提供的安全裝備是沒有盡到義務。a sense of duty責任感I did it out of a sense of duty.出於責任感我才這麼做。


2tasks that you do when you are at work職責ADJECTIVE | VERB + DUTY | DUTY + VERB | DUTY + NOUN | PREPOSITION | PHRASES ADJECTIVElight輕鬆的工作When I returned to work after my illness I was put on light duties.我病瘉重新工作,給安排了較輕鬆的工作。onerous (especially BrE) 繁重的工作day, night白班;夜班At 10.45 p.m. she reported for night duty.晚上 10 點 45 分她報到值夜班。combat, escort, guard, occupation, patrol, peacekeeping, point, sentry戰鬥任務;護衞工作;警衞工作;職責;巡邏任務;維和任務;(崗位)執勤;放哨The troops are here to perform peacekeeping duties.軍隊在這裏執行維和任務。The traffic lights were not working so there was a policeman on point duty.交通信號燈壞了,所以有一個警察在執勤指揮。active, inactive (in the military軍事) 現役/非現役He's been suspended from active duty.他被暫停服役。daily, regular, routine日常工作;例行工作temporary臨時職務full-time, part-time全職/兼職任務official公務職責administrative, operational, professional, teaching行政/業務/專業/教學工作domestic, household家務活兒My household duties were not particularly onerous.我的家務活兒並不很繁重。kitchen廚房工作He was on kitchen duty.他負責廚房工作。assigned分配的任務He was unable to perform his assigned duties because of ill health.因為健康不佳,他無法完成指派的任務。military軍事任務jury (especially NAmE) 陪審員義務Several years ago I was called for jury duty.幾年前我被要求擔任過陪審員。double (especially NAmE) 雙重職責The regular presenter does double duty as a staff writer.這位新聞節目主持人還同時兼做撰稿人。VERB + DUTYhave有任務The members of staff each have their own duties.每個職員都有各自的任務。pull (NAmE, informal) 值勤Sergeant Wilson had pulled parking-lot duty.威爾遜警官曾在停車場值勤。see (military軍事) 執行任務veterans who saw combat duty in Vietnam經歷過越戰的老兵carry out, complete, discharge, do, execute, perform, undertake執行任務;完成任務;履行職責She was unable to carry out her duties because she was too ill.她因為病得厲害沒能完成任務。handle (especially NAmE) 處理任務The company prefers to handle translation duties in-house.這家公司更願意在公司內部處理翻譯任務。come on, go on, report for開始上班;值班;報到上班Colleagues became suspicious when he failed to report for duty.他沒有報到上班,同事們產生了懷疑。come off, go off下班;卸任What time do you go off duty?你什麼時候下班?avoid, neglect, shirk瀆職;逃避職責He was accused of neglecting his professional duties.他被指控瀆職。resume, return to複職;重新回到工作崗位He leaves the hospital tomorrow and is expected to resume his duties at the beginning of next month.他明天出院,預計下個月初重新開始工作。relinquish放棄責任be released from獲許暫停工作Her son was released from duty in the army to visit her in hospital.她兒子獲准放下在部隊的工作到醫院來看望她。be relieved of, be suspended from被解除職務;暫停職務When he failed to turn up for training, he was relieved of his duties as captain.他沒有參加訓練,被免除了隊長職務。share, split (especially NAmE) 分擔責任I share the cooking duties with Bell.我和貝爾分擔做飯的任務。DUTY + VERBfall to sb工作歸某人負責The cleaning duties now fell to Rachel.清掃工作現在歸蕾切爾負責。DUTY + NOUNmanager, officer值班經理/警官the supermarket's senior duty manager超市的高級值班經理He went to the police station and spoke to the duty officer.他去警察局找了那個值班警員。doctor, nurse (both especially BrE) 值班醫生;值班護士station (NAmE) 勤務地The soldier was sent to his new duty station.該士兵被派往他的新勤務地。assignment (NAmE) 任務分配He has volunteered for temporary duty assignments in counterterrorist activities.他志願臨時執行反恐活動的任務。PREPOSITIONoff duty下班I'm off duty tomorrow night.我明天晚上不用值班。on duty值班You're not allowed to drink alcohol on duty.值班時不准喝酒。PHRASESthe execution of your duties, the performance of your duties職責的履行The company is liable if you are injured during the execution of your duty.你在執行任務過程中受傷,公司須負責任。


3taxADJECTIVE | ... OF DUTY | VERB + DUTY | DUTY + VERB | PREPOSITION ADJECTIVEheavy, high重稅;高額稅the heavy duty on cigarettes對香煙徵收的重稅low低稅customs, excise, export, import海關關稅;消費稅;出口稅;進口稅excise duty on spirits對烈酒徵收的消費稅alcohol, fuel, tobacco, etc. (all BrE) 酒稅、燃油稅、煙草稅等Tobacco duty is a major source of revenue for the government.煙草稅是政府收入的一個重要來源。death (BrE, old-fashioned) 遺產稅stamp (= a tax in the UK on some legal documents) 印花稅The bank will urge ministers to raise the 1% stamp duty threshold.該行將會敦促大臣們提高百分之一印花稅的起徵點。... OF DUTYamount稅額We tried to estimate the amount of duty we would have to pay.我們估計了一下我們應繳納的稅額。VERB + DUTYimpose, slap on sb/sth徵稅;突然對⋯徵稅They are going to slap duty on foreign cars.他們將對外國轎車徵稅。increase, put up, raise加稅They're going to put up the duty on tobacco.他們將提高煙草稅。cut, lower, reduce減稅;降稅pay納稅avoid, evade避稅;逃稅They claim that the wine is for personal use and so evade the duty.他們聲稱這酒是供個人飲用的,以此來逃稅。be liable to有納稅義務Perfume is liable to import duty.進口香水應納進口稅。be exempt from免稅Beer for personal use is exempt from duty.供個人飲用的啤酒免稅。DUTY + VERBbe payable (BrE) 稅應繳There will also be stamp duty payable at the applicable rate.還將會有用適用稅率計算的應繳印花稅。PREPOSITIONin duty⋯方面的稅By changing its supplier, the company saved thousands of pounds in import duty.更換供貨商後,這個公司省下了數千英鎊的進口稅。duty on對⋯徵的稅You have to pay duty on all electrical goods.所有的電氣產品都要納稅。
IELTS BNC: 846 COCA: 1752
duty noun
responsibility (It is my duty to report it to the police.) task (your professional duties) tax (pay customs duties)
IELTS BNC: 846 COCA: 1752
Responsibilities and responsibility: accountability, responsibility, obligation...

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